The Different Types of Vaccines
Coming up with a vaccine is very sensitive since it requires a lot of keen design formula that that should have elements to fight a disease Moreover, vaccines should be designed in such a manner that they are against illness microbe only without affecting the body cells. For a vaccine to be effective it must have so crucial characteristics such as the ability to fight the harmful elements in the body cells and not harm other cells that are not affected by the virus or bacterium without altering their functionality. Also when designing a vaccine varying considerations should be taken such as how compatible the vaccine is with other related ailments and the region in the world it will be used.
There are five main categories of vaccines which are: attenuated vaccine, toxic vaccine, conjugate vaccine, inactive vaccine and subunit vaccine which are discussed broadly below. These type of vaccine is developed in the vaccine where the real microbe in weakened in the lab to such a point that it cannot harm the body cells causing illness where the real behavior of the microbe is studied so as to find a suitable vaccine. This is done for the purpose of studying how the real microbe behaves in the natural infection. The main aim of creating microbes in a lab is to study the level at which the body is able to release antibodies to fight the different microbes and fight an illness and how to come up with relevant cure where an individual needs to take a few doses of the medicine to fight the disease of give enough assistance to the immune system to counter act against the harmful microbe. Diseases that are healed or controlled through such vaccine are chickenpox, rotavirus, measles, mumps, rubella, smallpox and yellow fever.
The second form of support vaccine is the toxic vaccine that emanates from harmful chemicals from bacteria those secret toxins. Illness can be caused by the toxic substance secreted by the bacteria. It has been learnt from scientific findings that inactive toxins can be treated with formalin, a solution of formaldehyde and sterilized water as vaccine. After the body is immunized it learns how to fight the natural toxic substance by releasing antibodies that fight the toxic substance and finally stop its production. The common toxics produced by the body are tetanus and diphtheria.
Thirdly, when designing a conjugate vaccine the scientists link toxoids or antigens from a microbe to the immune system to recognize it to the polysaccharides where this linkage helps immature immune system like that of an infant to react to polysaccharide coating and defend that body against diseases caused by bacterium. When there are sugar coating on a bacterium that ensures that bacterium antigens protect the immune system of newborn does not react to bacterium antibodies is known as polysaccharides.
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